The ICO exists to empower you through information.

The guidance on this page is suitable for large businesses in the public, private and third sectors. Small businesses should use the resources on our small business web hub.

Brief guidance

A guide to the data protection exemptions

Data protection exemptions, how they work and a list of available exemptions.

Detailed guidance

Immigration exemption: a guide

The immigration exemption, when and how to apply it, how it impacts individual rights and what happens when an immigration investigation becomes a criminal investigation. 

National security and defence: a guide

The national security and defence exemption, how the exemption works and when to apply it, ministerial certificates, special rules for special category data, security obligations and law enforcement processing.


Training videos: Exemptions

Recordings of ICO staff training on data protection exemptions, available for you to reuse.

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